Intellectual disability is a condition in which both intellectual performance and adaptive behaviour are impaired. This condition begins before the age of eighteen. When compared to peers of the same age, the child with intellectual disabilities has a considerable developmental delay and falls behind in cognitive, verbal, social, and occasionally motor capabilities.
Having an intellectually impaired child puts a lot of strain on the family and necessitates lifelong adaptations on the part of the parents and other family members; it can be challenging for parents to meet the intellectually disabled child's demands in terms of family functioning as a whole. Because of having an intellectually handicapped child in the family, the entire family is affected in many ways, including parents, brothers and sisters, and extended family members such as grandparents. The family's social life is disrupted; they may want to isolate themselves from others and engage in fewer recreational or leisure activities. Some families experience rejection or neglect from family members, friends, or relatives, causing interpersonal interactions to become strained and support to be lost.
Parents are the true well-wishers and guardians of their children's interests. They can assist in a variety of ways with their children's welfare, care, and treatment. A disabled child is not the duty of a single person, but rather the concern of everyone. The primary challenge is bringing together diverse people who can aid the impaired child, and this is where the parents play an important role.
Method: To find potential studies, researchers used databases such as Research Gate, Google Scholar, and Pub Med/Medline.
Results: The researchers used a variety of survey techniques. Various domains of coping methods were also studied. Parents of intellectually handicapped children have an important role in the development, promotion, and support of rehabilitation programmes for intellectually disabled people and their families. The presence of an ID child in a family unit has an impact on all other family members; nevertheless, knowledge of fundamental skills and procedures for dealing with such children greatly decreases the family's psychological and physical strain. A family with an ID child has various needs and problems. They are mostly interested in learning about their child's development and talents. Teaching proper behaviour and learning new skills, as well as family ties and parenting strategies The advantages of family-centered therapies are now more than ever being recognised. Parents and other family members are being encouraged to participate in the training and habilitation of mentally retarded individuals since such approaches result in beneficial outcomes for parents, families, and children. It aids in the development of children, the reduction of family stress, the increase of family coping, and the improvement of family connections. Evidence of a gap can be seen in the areas of various coping strategies and parent management training to improve the mental health of parents who have children with intellectual disabilities.
Conclusion: Interventions for strengthening families with intellectually impaired children should focus on satisfying the needs of the index child, parents, siblings, and extended family members, as well as recognising, promoting, and utilising the families' existing strengths. All family members must be included, and need-based family interventions must be provided. It also highlights the fact that families differ in terms of cohesion, adaption, and communication. This means that families differ in terms of the degree of emotional bonding among family members, the level of freedom each family member has, and the family's ability to cope with and change in the face of stress.