India is advancing to the road of industrialisation. Economic growth is a fundamental requirement for the development of a country. A country’s economic growth depends upon industrial progress and an industry cannot progress without its workforce. Therefore, an industry needs to take care of health and safety of its workforce, so that they can work efficiently to contribute effectively to the industrial progress. This can only be possible by proper legislation. In India, codified legislation for the same has come a long way with the enactment of the Factories Act, 1948 which entails the provisions on these matters. When it comes to health and safety of the workmen, these issues can be said to be one of the major reasons for debate today in terms of their legislative strength and execution, as worker’s welfare is paramount consideration in smooth running and progress of any industrial system. The present research paper aims to critically evaluate the health and safety provisions provided in this legislation and examine their scope and framework by looking into their effective implementation in the factories.