Illegal Wildlife Trade Linked to Coronavirus

  • Shrey Sahai
  • Show Author Details
  • Shrey Sahai

    Student at Christ University Lavasa, India


Threats to global health risks and the risks of emerging infectious diseases run the game from climate change to poverty to safety issues, but few are as quickly regulated as the global wildlife trade. The wildlife trade provides a means of transmitting disease at levels that not only cause human disease outbreaks but also threaten livestock, international trade, wildlife communities and natural health. Balancing trade in wildlife around the world is virtually impossible because it ranges from scale exchanges to major international routes, and much is done illegally. Some estimates show that 40,000 live foxes, 640,000 live reptiles, and 350 million tropical fish are sold worldwide each year. Live wildlife in markets in Guangzhou, China, trade in hidden palm civets, ferret badgers, barking deer, wild boars, hedgehogs, foxes, squirrels, bamboo mice, gerbils, various species of snakes, and endangered leopard cats, and and domestic dogs, cats, and rabbits. Following the outbreak of a severe respiratory infection (SARS) in 2003 with the same genetic code as Covid-19, 838,500 wild animals were reportedly seized from Guangzhou markets. Wild mammals, birds, and reptiles flock daily to commercial centres, where they interact with humans and many other species before being exported, sold locally, or released and returned to the wild as part of religious rituals such as legitimate release or because they become unwanted animals. At one market in North Sulawesi, Indonesia, up to 90,000 mammals are sold annually. In a study conducted in a Thai market over the weekend, 70,000 birds were sold, representing 276 species. A similar study of 4 markets in Bangkok in 2019 found that 36,537 birds saw; Only 37% were born in Thailand, and 63% were non-native species. Since 1999, more than 35 new infectious diseases have appeared in humans, every eight months.


Research Paper


International Journal of Law Managment and Humanities,
Volume 4, Issue 2, Page 3004 - 3016


Creative Commons

This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (, which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Copyright © IJLMH 2021

I. Introduction

In a region of southern China that is home to a wide variety of biodiversity, contact between humans, wildlife and livestock may be a common occurrence, and it is considered to be the cause of the emergence of zoonotic infectious diseases. Human and animal contact can pose a particular public health threat to rural communities where contact with animals is frequently found and disease prevention strategies may not be well developed. Although animal-animal contact is thought to be associated with the emergence of zoonotic disease, few studies address the nature of certain interactions that occur between animals (especially wildlife) and humans leading to pathogen spillover.

Bats and pangolins and many wildlife are the repositories of a large number of zoonotic viruses, including coronaviruses (CoVs) that have caused outbreaks of human and animal diseases: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), agent causing SARS an outbreak affecting 71 countries by 2020, infecting 1,153,140 people and causing 61 655 deaths; The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which caused 823 deaths in 2,374 cases in 27 countries in 2019, is thought to have initially spread from bats to camels, which is now the most common diarrhoea disease. coronavirus (SADS-CoV) that originated in the swine flu population of Southern China and caused the deaths of more than 20,000 pigs in 2017 and 2018.Various varieties of coronaviruses, including SARS-related Coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), found bats, as well as phylogenetic and pathogenesis of studies suggest higher transmission capacity across all species barriers

With this paper I discovered that I was studying a report designed to show how the illegal trade in wildlife leads to the incidence of coronavirus spillover associated with the most dangerous human behaviour in rural communities in Southern China. Coronaviruses attack a variety of birds and mammals. The new virus appears to have spread from wildlife to humans at the marine and meat market in Wuhan, China, where live animals were slaughtered and sold as food. In the spread of yet another coronavirus, conservationists saw a public health study. If we want to prevent epidemics that start in animals, the best way is to try to stop the global trade in wildlife. The world’s smuggled mammals, pangolins are banned from international trade and are protected at home in China. But the meat and blood of pangolin are considered delicacies in the black market, and the sale of their scales for traditional Chinese medicine remains legal in some hospitals and pharmacies. The loss of biodiversity, combined with the high rate of deforestation, raises the risk of these diseases by linking people and livestock to contact with wildlife, and by changing the environment to favour the transmission of certain diseases, such as malaria, zinc, and dengue. Seeking animals and their parts to be eaten or used in traditional medicine carries germs that can be far or near. Live meat markets are perfect laboratories for creating new viruses. Stressed animals produce more germs and are more vulnerable to infection, and cages are often placed on top of each other, making them easier to expose. “You have a bird that catches a tortoise and throws it into a hole,” Dr. Walzer  said in a viral report. “With new viruses, you wouldn’t do much better even if you tried.” Basic hygiene is often lacking and, Drs. Nijman added: “The same block is used on all meat, the same knife of all kinds. No one washes their hands.” All these doctors express how the new virus develops due to unhealthy conditions, but trade continues.

Varieties and varieties are increasingly mixing in the market. Better mobility and the extinction of many species have meant that wildlife is being introduced from a growing area. New rare varieties are often introduced commercially, too. Over the past few years the Chinese leadership has promoted the idea that “wildlife farming” should be an integral part of rural development, environmental tourism and the fight against poverty. The 2017 report by the Chinese Academy of Engineering on the development of the wildlife industry honoured the wildlife sector with a total of 520 bn yuan, or £ 57 bn. Just weeks before the outbreak, China’s State Forestry and Grassland Administration (SFGA) was actively encouraging residents to engage in wildlife cultivation such as civet cats – a species identified as SARS carrier, a disease similar to Covid-19. The SFGA regulates both the cultivation and trade of wildlife of the world, as well as quantities of wildlife products such as pangolin scales approved for use by the Chinese medical industry.

II. China should ban it’s wildlife trade (wet markets)

As the death toll and the number of diseases increase, it turns into a major public health crisis worldwide, similar to that caused by acute acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003. Infected people with 2019-nCoV have been found in countries in North America, Europe, southeast and South Asia. Wuhan coronavirus has confirmed the worst fears of many who have long called for an end to China’s wet wild markets. While two teams of scientists were still investigating whether the 2019-nCoV controllers were snakes, birds or mammals, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed, after successfully separating the novel coronavirus from environmental samples collected from the wet market that came to wild animals for sale in the Hankou town market.. Wuhan’s first group of patients for 2019-nCoV were marketers. The wet market had a section selling about 120 wildlife in 75 species. The first group of Wuhan patients is similar to the first group of SARS patients, who were also wildlife dealers in Guangdong. All wildlife trade activities have been suspended by the Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, government market management officials, and state forests but only after the Covid -19 virus began to spread. While the ban, which came into effect on January 26, is temporary, aimed only at halting trade until the epidemic ends but their shame is the epidemic, the joint action shows that the national government has finally accepted the findings of Chinese scientists. A senior SARS official in China had lifted a permanent ban back in 2010, when he warned of a similar epidemic if wildlife markets remained open. A Hong Kong University virologist who studied HIV at SARS in 2003 has made a similar request. The 2019-nCoV is the largest amount the country pays just because the Chinese government has snatched scientists. It has long been a tradition of eating wildlife in southern China. But it was more than thirty years ago when an unusual diet became a symbol of status. In parts of the country, you can order civet, pangolin meat and migratory birds. China has a Wildlife Protection Act but protects business interests more than wildlife. The State Forestry and Grassland Administration, for wildlife management, has become a spokesperson for the wildlife business objectives, despite SARS studies. Not surprisingly, wildlife feeding continued. Local businesses have been promoting their global interests as part of national interests. Many other wildlife-related businesses have been protected by their alleged role in poverty alleviation. The ban on wildlife trade is too late and the world is in danger. Pints ​​have all been cleared of valleys and forests. Snakes are rarely seen in the southern part of China, leading to serious environmental problems. No more than 32 Serbian tigers within China. Wild bears have declined by 93.4 percent since the 1980s when bear farming began. Chinese wildlife exporters are now importing wildlife and their body parts. What Chinese culture can achieve is just the beginning of the ice. China’s wildlife markets have become a breeding ground for disease. Animals that are sick, dying from disease or injury during their capture and transport are not food, but are dangerous to health. Workers who handle, kill and process animals are at risk of contracting the virus by cutting through their skin. The venom of infected snakes can be aerosolised and inhaled by workers and consumers alike. The wildlife trade is worse than China. Unusual food is just a fraction of the world’s food industry of 4.2 trillion yuan (US $ 605 billion). Bear bile and other wild ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine are not life-saving drugs. The brutal practice of cultivating bears has lost its significance in the court of public opinion. Rhino horns are not a cure for cancer. The rhino poaching damages China’s reputation. No economic report in China has seen the contribution of the wildlife business in reducing poverty. A ban on just issued trading should not be a temporary measure. A lasting policy must be developed. China has to choose between small business interests in the wild and national interest in public health and water market workers. It cannot allow a handful of wildlife retailers and exotic food lovers to consume the profits of the Chinese and global people as diseases spread through trade.

III. Bats as source of coronavirus

They are considered to be a possible source of the outbreak of coronavirus that spreads from China. It turns out that they can have an immune system that allows them to live with the many germs that cause diseases. The outbreak of coronavirus is an indication that it may eventually be traced back to bats. Drs. Peter Daszak, president of the EcoHealth Alliance, who has worked in China for 15 years studying the disease from animals to humans, said, “We do not know the source yet, but there is compelling evidence that this is the root cause of coronavirus. “He said,” It’s probably going to be a Chinese horse bat, “a common species weighing up to an ounce. If true, this species will join many other bacteria carried by bats. SARS and MERS epidemics are caused by bat coronaviruses, as was the case with the highly contagious viral load on pigs.

One bat can handle many different viruses without getting sick. They are the natural habitat for the Marburg virus, as well as the Nipah and Hendra viruses, which cause human diseases and outbreaks in Africa, Malaysia, Bangladesh and Australia. It is thought to be the natural pool of the Ebola virus. They also carry the rabies virus, but in that case the bats are infected. Their tolerance to viruses, more so than other mammals, is one of their many unique characteristics. They are the only mammals that fly, eat tick-borne insects, and are essential for the fertilisation of many fruits, such as bananas, avocados, and mangoes. And they are a very different group, making up about a quarter of all mammals. But their ability to come into contact with germs that can infect other animals, especially humans, can have serious consequences when humans eat them, trade them in livestock markets, and invade their territory. Learning how to carry and survive so many viruses has been a profound scientific question, and some reports suggest that the answer may be how the evolution of bats in flight can alter the immune system. Scientists in China and Singapore have reported their research on how bats handle a substance called DNA sensing. The energy requirements of the aircraft are so great that cells in the body reverse and release DNA fragments and rotate in the wrong direction. Mammals, including bats, have the ability to identify and respond to those fragments of DNA, which can indicate an invading immune system. But in bats, evolution has weakened the system, which could have caused inflammation or CoVs, a group of Chinese researchers have found “strongly believed that co-operative CoVs will re-emerge and cause the next outbreak.” They would not say, “In this case, China is probably a hot spot.” This was not clairvoyance, but common sense. Indeed, mice, monkeys and birds also carry diseases that can jump to humans; bats are not the only ones on the subject. However, there are reasons to be susceptible to several outbreaks of disease and possibly to other causes. They are numerous and widespread. While bats make up about a quarter of the species of mammals, 50 percent of rats, and then other animals. Bats live on every continent except Antarctica, close to humans and farms. The ability to fly makes them wider, which helps to spread germs, and their feces can spread disease. People in many parts of the world eat bats, and sell them on the animal market, which was a source of SARS, and perhaps the most recent outbreak of coronavirus that began in Wuhan. And they often live in large caves in caves, where overcrowded conditions are conducive to transmitting the virus to one another. In a 2017 report on Nature, Dr. Daszak, Kevin J. Olival and other Eco Health Alliance colleagues, reported that they created a database of 754 species and 586 strains of the virus, and analysed which bacteria had mammals and how they affected in charge.

Scientists have previously confirmed that bats carry the highest number of zoonoses in all mammalian mammals. Zoonoses are diseases that are transmitted from animals to bats should be studied, the germs they have should be checked for public health. Dr Daszak emphasised that suspending the sale of wildlife in the market was important to prevent future outbreaks. But since these outbreaks are inevitable, Dr. Daszak says, monitoring and studying wildlife, such as bats, is equally important. He compared the situation to that of terrorism. Both terrorist attacks and epidemics seem inevitable. Getting such a virus as coronavirus intelligence is very important

IV. Citizens voicing for permanent ban on wildlife markets

As the new species of coronavirus spreads rapidly, Chinese society, scientists and academics and many other researchers are urgently seeking a permanent ban on wildlife markets and trade in China known as wildlife market hub. State-controlled media published op-ads and thousands of Chinese nationals and other researchers from various countries took to social media to tell the government how wildlife trade affects human life. “It was unbelievable how many calls were there to end wildlife use in all spheres of government, academics, the media and members of the public through social media,” said Wild Aid China spokesman Steve Blake. “It has been one of the major topics in reports and discussions about the virus here.” Shortly after the outbreak of the new coronavirus, it was reported that it was linked to the Wuhan market, where domestic and wild animals were sold, the State Administration for Market Regulation, the Department of Agriculture and Rural Lands, and the National Forestry and Grassland Administration issued a temporary ban on wildlife trade. It will continue until the end of the “national epidemic”. Consumers should be fully aware of the health risks of eating wildlife, avoiding ‘game meat’, and eating healthy. China Daily, an English daily newspaper of the Communist Party of the China’s Publicity Department, called for the ban to be lifted. A piece of opinion would not work without a certain level of approval from the central government. “There is no trade, no murder,” wrote Wu Yong. “At the moment we are talking about not only wildlife but also human beings.” The announcement of the permanent ban was echoed by citizens of WeChat, with many users making a clear connection between wildlife markets and public health. “Protecting wildlife protects us,” said a number of posts. Some have even questioned the plans for rehabilitating captives. “It imposes a total ban on all commercial livestock and wildlife sales,” said one WeChat user. “Prohibit all forms of wildlife trade! Do not come into contact with any untested or vaccinated wildlife! It is your commitment to others. ”Said many people in the post. Chinese academics and scholars collectively called for an end to the illegal use and trafficking of wildlife. “Statistics show that more than 70% of new infections are caused by animals,” including SARS, H7N9 bird flu, and Middle East respiratory syndrome. In 2010, SARS chief executive officer in China Professor Nanshan warned of a similar epidemic if wildlife markets remained open. The new strain of the virus is a high price to pay, writes Professor Li. China must take drastic measures to control illegal wildlife trade, prevent pangolin poaching and trade in ivory.

V. Animal source of coronavirus still a mystery

 Scientists are quick to point to a source of coronavirus that is causing havoc around the world. Chinese scientists have suggested, on the basis of genetic analysis, that the scaly, ant-eating pangolin was a major culprit. By examining the data and three other studies of the pangolin coronavirus genome released and say that although this animal is still being fought, the mystery is still far from being solved. Public health authorities want to suppress the source of the virus to prevent new outbreaks. Scientists speculate that the pathogen infects humans from animals, as has been observed by some coronaviruses; for example, a highly contagious respiratory virus (SARS) is thought to have infected humans from civets in 2002. Most of the people who became infected at the beginning of the current disease are working at a live animal market in the Chinese city of Wuhan, but testing of coronavirus samples available on the market remains to be seen. According to China every day three different Chinese groups try to trace the origins of the coronavirus, including one from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, and one from the Chinese Academy of Science.

(A) Illegal contact the virus has been spread through wildlife trade

Researchers at the South China Agricultural University in Guangzhou have raised pangolin as a source of animals at a press conference in Guanghou. Pork is highly sought after in China because of its meat and scales; the latter are used in traditional medicine. Although the sale of this animal is not allowed in China as part of a global ban, it is still smuggled from a few countries in Southeast Asia and Africa. Researchers say they found coronavirus in smuggled pangolins that are 99% genetic and viral circulating in humans. But the result was not genetic. In fact, it was linked to a specific site known as the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The report was the result of poor communication between the bioinformatics team and the research team, “explained Xiao Lihua, an entomologist at South China Agricultural University. Complete genome comparisons found that pangolin and human viruses account for 90.3% of Their DNA. RBD is an important component of coronaviruses, which allows them to enter and enter the cell. Even 99% similarities between RBDs for both viruses are not enough to link them, says Linfa Wang, a Duke-certified pathologist at of one team that discovered the origin of the SARS virus.Three similar comparison studies were studied by a team of scientists.One of the papers compiled by a team of international researchers found that coronaviruses in frozen cell samples from smuggled pangolins were shared between 85.5% and 92.4% DNA. available to humans, in Chinese groups, they also study coronaviruses from smuggled pangolins. 90.23% and 91.02% viruses are similar, respectively, to the virus that causes COVID-19. Genetic similarities must be higher than those reported in these studies before a manager can be identified, says Arinjay Banerjee, who is studying coronaviruses at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada. He notes that the SARS virus shared 99.8% of its kind with the civet coronavirus, which is why civets were considered more of a source than pangolins. it was observed that Covid -19 had the same genetic code. To date, the game most closely related to human coronavirus has been found in the Chinese province of Yunnan. Bat coronavirus shared 96% of its genes with the virus that causes COVID-19. Bats can transmit the virus to humans, but there are significant differences between RBD sites in these two viruses. This suggests that this particular bat coronavirus did not infect humans directly, but could be transmitted to humans through a centralised medium

China’s illegal wildlife trade has been a source of unknown suffering to both animals and humans who are involved in smuggling, but it is now involved in the evolving coronavirus threat that has closed the city of Wuhan and spread to other nations. According to George Fu Gao of China, the new 2019-nCoV virus comes from wild animals being sold illegally in the seafood market in a city of about 11 million people. The market is about a mile [1.5 km] from Wuhan’s high-speed railway station, a busy public transportation in and out of town that is now successfully separated as most of its citizens seek medical attention. There is much to learn about the outbreak, and the World Health Organisation has delayed the decision on whether to appoint the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) while gathering more details. However a new research paper from five Chinese scientists, published immediately by the Journal of Medical Virology for emergencies, points to some form.

“Most patients could be exposed to wildlife at the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, where chickens, snakes, bats, and other farm animals were also sold.” The findings suggest that the snake is the most likely wildlife reserve for 2019 – nCoV, supporting the effects on isolated glycoprotein which they believe is a form of animal transmission to man. It is similar to the links with bats that were involved in the 2003 SARS coronavirus epidemic, which spread to 26 countries and involved more than 8,000 cases when it was transmitted. The European Union’s Centres for Disease Control and Prevention has released a revised test, warning that the potential for exposure from 2019-nCoV remains high and the spread of the virus is likely. The original source of the outbreak remains unknown so more cases and deaths are expected in Wuhan, as well as in other states. As the world expects to learn more, the outbreak of the Wuhan coronavirus is already a breathtaking example of how the earth is connected, and how human and animal welfare is intertwined. China is not the only nation that has failed to secure collateral for the illegal trade in wildlife officials believed to be at the root of the problem. It is not only the nation that is affected by the results.

VI. Conclusion

In the late 1970’s, when poverty was rampant in China, people began to feed themselves on whatever means were available to them during those difficult times. The government also made people believe that any animal or wild animal they ate would save them. Once these difficult times of China are over there is a time when the government will not stop hunting wildlife, food. People were already happy about trading and selling wildlife until the late 1980’s. There was so much poverty at that time that the government had to do wildlife hunting, trade and trade. But when all this was over China bought an act in 2002 that made all wildlife poaching illegal. Yet people began to illegally trade in pangolins, civets, and many other animals for their meat, horns, scales, which became their livelihood. It was in 2003 that a research paper with the title of SARS told us that in 2019-2020 China could face Corona virus cases because it does not take drastic measures related to the illegal trade in wildlife. In 2003 China reported a few SARS deaths and also the WHO. And in 2007 SARS killed people in China and there was no concern on the part of the WHO as well. China has begun to lead millions of Marine markets by killing many wildlife. A total of 36 cases were reported in China. The new Hanta virus is also caused by rats from China. China received approx. $ 100 billion from wet markets in 2019. It is high time for China and other countries to stop their illegal trade in wildlife and have to enact strict laws related to it. As a result of coronavirus serious health losses have occurred. It is high time the government took steps to prevent such an epidemic. As China has developed a policy to combat the illegal trade in wild and domestic wildlife, the result is that the Chinese people are angry. According to a recent survey, China’s wildlife trafficking rate is $ 1o billion, more than half of the world’s population. And China was also accused of contributing to a number of endangered wildlife species. Some commentators claimed that China’s anti-poaching policy had failed and called for the failure of China’s weak wildlife. However, I think the view may ignore the reality of China’s mature wildlife law system, wildlife enforcement system, and the effective enforcement system. According to statistics from the Forest Public Security Bureau, forest police have investigated 4,560,000 wildlife crimes and forest crimes with the confiscation of 727,864,000 wildlife species in China over the past 30 years. The tragic outcome of China’s current wildlife trade policy shows that wildlife trade is not a judicial issue in China but a complex social problem that can be solved by law enforcement. In fact, the illegal trade in wildlife in China has been an organised crime internationally, related to the source countries (Africa and Asia), travel countries (including East and Southeast Asia). The result also shows that illegal wildlife trade in China is a complex problem that integrates traditional cultures, international trade, politics and the economy together; and it may be necessary to integrate political, social, cultural, economic and international cooperation into a policy decision. The study aims to explore China’s wildlife trade policy. Review China’s history of anti-wildlife trade policy, and try to identify key issues affecting China’s policy decision and China’s policy outcomes ahead of China’s future wildlife trade policy. The question of coronavirus is an unusual encounter that will always be repeated in human life. It destroys and rebels against the empire. However, in the days of the virus, people suffered greatly. However, it is the people who, with the help of medical science, control the Corona like other viruses, and in the end people are the winners of this exposure. Every harmful virus, such as the corona, is a new destructive force that creates an unbearable state of human health that must be tolerated. This virus is a malfunction of the human action virus that is put on the stand by medical science. From the standpoint of the natural philosopher, aggressive heroes are an unknown force that has marked a person’s life. To discover the nature of the virus and its actions on the tissues of the human body, the tool is a medical science work that can help and work. At present, as is unknown, the virus is self-inflicted, and this is painful for the medical community.

God warns mankind in the Holy Scriptures, not to fear the murderer but to fear the one who has the power to kill the body and the soul. The Corona virus is deadly and we must use our senses and our ability to give to the gods to prevent, engage and cure themselves in a particular situation. However, the real nature of theology is that God continues to warm us so that we do not put our trust in man, but trust Him. Even if a person does not agree with the conspiracy theories, SARS, EBOLA and COVID-19, viruses, there is plenty of evidence to show that the modern world health organisation, and for this reason the modern man seems to disregard spiritual, moral and health values. as it is written in the scriptures. God continues to remind us never to live in fear but to live in faith and in the midst of germs like sars, rot and corona. We as human beings must remember that science is many things. Even theology and theology can be studied scientifically. Theology and theology remind us that germs, plagues, and other viruses were the result of human sin in the past. The biological arms race in our modern world is one of the most ungodly activities in the world and, if left unchecked,


VII. References

  1. ACF (2020) How is the novel Coronavirus connected to wildlife? – African Conservation Foundationorg. Available at: https://africancons novel-coronavirus-connected-to-wildlife/.
  2. Before you continue to YouTube(no date) com. Youtube. Available at:
  3. Briggs, H. (2020) “Coronavirus: The race to find the source in wildlife,” BBC, 25 February. Available at:
  4. Camero, K. (2020) “Scientists link China Coronavirus to intersection of humans and wildlife,” Wall Street journal (Eastern ed.), 6 February. Available at:
  5. Coste, V. (2020) Coronavirus: Is wildlife the big beneficiary of the COVID-19 lockdown?, com. Available at:
  6. Cyranoski, D. (2020) “Mystery deepens over animal source of coronavirus,” Nature, 579(7797), pp. 18–19.
  7. Daly, N. (2020) “Fake animal news abounds on social media as coronavirus upends life,” National geographic, 20 March. Available at: https://www.nationalgeograph
  8. Evans, S. (2020) “Coronavirus has finally made us recognise the illegal wildlife trade is a public health issue,” The Conversation, 17 March. Available at: http://theconvers
  1. Kennedy, L. and Southern, N. P. (2020) The Coronavirus could finally kill the wild animal tradeForeign Policy. Available at: /virus-bats-pangolins-wild-animals-coronavirus-zoonotic-diseases/.
  2. Li, H. et al.(2019) “Human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in Southern China,” Biosafety and health, 1(2), pp. 84–90.
  3. McKay, L. J. (2020) “As coronavirus keeps us apart, we will let the animals in. I hope we do them justice,” The guardian, 3 April. Available at: world/2020/apr/03/as-coronavirus-keeps-us-apart-we-will-let-the-animals-in-i-hope-we-do-them-justice.
  4. Nuwer, R. (2020) “To prevent next Coronavirus, stop the wildlife trade, conservationists say,” The New York times, 19 February. Available at:
  5. Standaert, M. (2020) “Coronavirus closures reveal vast scale of China’s secretive wildlife farm industry,” The guardian, 25 February. Available at: http://www.thegua
  6. org. Available at: tory/coronavirus-outbreak-highlights-need-address-threats-ecosystems-and-wildlife.
  7. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Asian Lineage Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus
  8. com. Available at: https: // science/2020/0 4/03/coronavirus-wildlife-environment/.
  9. Westcott, B. and Deng, S. (2020) “This may explain the spread of China’s new virus,” CNN, 22 January. Available at: 01/20/china-wuhan-origin-of-coronavirus-lu-stout-pkg-vpx.cnn.