A new wave of technology is driving rapid international changes. This transformation has created new opportunities for multilateral cooperation in the areas of sustainable development, state-society relations, peace and conflict, international security, and global governance. Waves” of technological change, driven by inventions ranging from steam power to electricity to the automobile, have driven economic development and social transformation throughout history. Some historians speak of “technological revolutions,” from the first industrial revolution that mechanized production, to the second that led to mass production, to the third that automated production. It has been argued that in the fourth industrial revolution, where “a fusion of technologies…is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres .”In this latest technological revolution, “new technologies” include everything from the internet to drones to big data, and the potential applications of these technologies are rapidly expanding.