In the 19th century, the eastern and western cultures collided in Russia, and Russia was in the interaction between the two. The tortuous historical process and the special geographical environment created a unique creation background. Under the efforts of many composers such as Glinka, The Five and Tchaikovsky, Russian piano works have a unique national flavor and made contributions to the development of piano in the world. Russian piano music in this period has a strong national flavor, unique creation techniques and tragic style, and the expression of delicate emotion and psychological experience has a new height. Based on the development background of Russia in the 19th century, this paper hopes to gain a deeper and essential understanding through analysis.